The game contains many elements from Dragon Ball Online and Dragon Ball Heroes. Several in-game cutscenes are also OVA content exclusive to the game. It is the first fighting game developed by Dimps to feature full 3D battles similar to the Budokai Tenkaichi series. It was originally known as Dragon Ball New Project, until the actual title was revealed on June 10, 2014. A sequel, Dragon Ball Xenoverse 2, came out in 2016.
Due to insufficient sorting and recycling, macroscopic contaminations remain in post-consumer polyolefin recyclates. It is known that these contaminations affect the mechanical properties of the recyclates, as they constitute defects and thus crack initiators. However, the influences of different types and amounts of macroscopic contaminants have not yet been analyzed systematically. In this study, to close this knowledge gap, virgin polypropylene (PP) was systematically contaminated with paper, aluminum, sand, wood, in-mold labels, jute fibers and long glass-fibers. Additionally, three commercially available post-consumer PP recyclates were investigated. In a two-stage process, all materials were injection-molded into plates and subsequently milled to specimens. The specimens underwent (i) tensile tests at 50 mm/min, (ii) intermediate-rate tensile tests at 2000 mm/min, and (iii) tensile impact tests. Further, optical microscopy was used to measure the dimensions of the defects on the fracture surfaces. First, the influences of various types and quantities of contamination were evaluated. No significant effects were detected, as the matrix material was very brittle. Compared to the virgin reference grade, most samples showed lower strain-at-break values, except for those with labels and long glass-fibers, for which strain values increased. All PP post-consumer recyclates exhibited a more pronounced ductile behavior, although the contaminations incorporated gave rise to relatively high standard deviations. Second, in a comparison of various testing speeds, a greater influence of contaminants was detected in test (iii). Samples taken from a position close to the sprue had better mechanical properties than samples taken from the opposite side of the plate, as contaminants tend to flow to the end of the produced part. Finally, a non-linear relationship between the energy needed for fracture in testing methods (ii) and (iii) and the dimensions of the contamination on the fracture surface was found.
The use of fossil resources and their negative environmental impacts has awakened the awareness of the petrochemical industry. Hereby, we are presenting some upstream industrial scalable and commercial solutions to process sustainable feedstocks, either biogenic or recycled, to produce drop-in hydrocarbons that can be converted into light olefins using the same assets and infrastructure currently established in the petrochemical industry (e.g. steam crackers), reducing the environmental impact of large-volume chemicals such as ethylene, propylene and benzene, which are the most demanded building blocks in the petrochemical value chain. Mass balanced certified co-processing of biogenic and recycled waste plastics as raw materials, are the key for the de-fossilisation of the petrochemical industry. Production of polypropylene (PP) using renewable feedstock can reduce the GHG above 80% or 3.8 kg CO2eq/kg in comparison with the fossil-based. For making a higher impact in the plastic industry, a full integration of the value chain is needed to guarantee allocation of the sustainable credits to targeted products. As a showcase, a collaboration project between partners in different parts of the value chain to produce biobased PP thermoformed plastic cups, is presented. As a result from this collaboration, PP cups with final properties identical in range to the traditional fossil were obtained and the renewable hydrocarbons could be identified in the product using C14. Drop-in solutions using renewable or recycled feedstock is paving the way in the petrochemical industry to obtaining sustainable products with low impact in the current downstream infrastructure.
Injection moulding is an important manufacturing process in the fabrication of plastic parts. The repeatability of injection moulding machines has been an area of interest for several decades, to ensure the quality in the moulded product. It requires that each machine runs with multiple moulds and materials. The diversity of moulds and materials, require robust controllers that works well for different setpoints of speed and pressure. The tuning of machine controllers is a complicated task and should not be carried out each time a new mould or material is changed to ensure a consistent production flow. The injection moulding process is divided into several phases. The predominant moulding process in the industry is called secondary overpoint. It consists of a velocity-controlled fill phase and pressure controlled holding phase. The switchover between velocity control and pressure control of the injection cylinder is an important part of the cycle. It is important that the switchover occurs almost instantly to avoid overfilling the mould. It is desired to minimize the transient response of e.g. the pressure because a pressure drop before the holding pressure reference is achieved is undesired. A pressure drop results in reduction of the melt flow into the mould. This is undesired because the reduced flow will reduce the shear rate, hence increase the frozen layer making it harder or impossible to pack the elements. Previous research within bump-less transfer between the velocity-controlled phase and the pressure-controlled phase is based on making the pressure controller track the velocity controller. Hence ensuring continuity of the control input signal when the switchover occurs. A novel bump-less switch-over method is presented for hydraulic machines. The bump-less control switching approach is based on the control of flow into both chambers of the injection cylinder and is independent of plastic and mould properties. The controller structure is designed from a model-based approach. The controller is based on a cascaded controller structure, with a pressure and velocity controller. The bump-less transfer is secured through a continues reference generation and sharing of controller structure, making the switch-over less sensitive to mould and material parameters. It is possible to tune the time before the holding pressure is achieved through a single parameter, with direct relation to the settling time. The controllers and bump-less switch-over method are implemented on a rebuild commercial injection moulding machine. The results show in agreement with theory a bump-less fill to pack transition without any oscillations in the hydraulic pressure states. The controller structure enables bump-less switch-over between the velocity controller and pressure controller without the need for tuning when the mould and material is changed. If desired, it is furthermore possible to adjust the time it takes to reach the steady state holding pressure.
Dimensional accuracy is, to this day, a challenging key quality aspect for manufactured parts using primary shaping processes. Many high-precision parts undergo multiple correction loops during the mold-making process to meet required geometric tolerances. Each iteration not only increases production costs, but also requires additional human and environmental resources. Dimensional inaccuracies are caused by the process-based part deformation, a superposition of the phenomena shrinkage and warpage. The mechanisms for shrinkage and warpage are strongly related to the dependence of a polymer's specific volume on pressure, and temperature (pvT-behavior). Shrinkage is inevitable since it is caused by the continuous decrease in melt temperature and the inherent crystallization process during solidification. Warpage results due to local and time-dependent variations of the melt temperature, cooling rate, and pressure and thus the local specific volume. These variations cause inner stress distributions that ultimately cause the part to warp. In order to reduce part warpage, the volumetric shrinkage must be homogenized across the part, which can be realized by manipulating the part's temperature locally and time-dependent. In this work, the warpage of a box-shaped geometry is aimed to be reduced by controlling the local temperature using dynamic heating elements. Dynamic temperature control is realized using a novel heating coating system based on plasma sprayed TiOx/Cr2O3, which is applied onto the cavity surface. Compared to conventional fluid-based temperature control systems, the heating coating system provides high heating rates of up to 25 K/s. Due to a coating thickness of 0.5 mm, the system is highly dynamic in its heating and cooling behavior. In order to ensure the feasibility of the heating coating system for complex geometries, a simulation-based procedure is presented, which identifies and compensates warpage-critical areas. In the first step, a commercial injection molding simulation software calculates part warpage while considering the water-cooling channel layout (reference). The resulting warpage file is exported to a 3D inspection software. Via a surface comparison between the CAD file (required drawing dimensions) and the warped geometry, the deviation was evaluated for all surfaces. A maximum warpage of 1.7 mm was measured for the box-shaped geometry and the polymer POM. This warpage is the reference value, which is used to determine the warpage reduction with the heating coating systems. Based on this initial calculation, multiple heating coating systems are modeled using CAD software. The modeled heating systems aim to homogenize thermal imbalances within the mold in such a way that the maximum part warpage is reduced by a factor of ten (compared to the reference). Each heating system is imported to the injection molding simulation software, where multiple power levels are applied during the molding simulation. The resulting warpage for each simulation is exported and evaluated. A significant warpage reduction has been achieved, with the maximum deviation being 0.35 mm (warpage reduction by factor five) with this procedure for the box-shaped geometry and the polymer POM. This work aims to achieve a maximum warpage of 0.17 mm, by optimizing the shape and applied power of the most suited heating coating system configuration. In the future, the modeled and simulated heating coating system will be validated in an experimental study. 2b1af7f3a8