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A body of theoretical literature has developed that explains why historically disadvantaged groups should be represented by members of those groups. Such representatives are commonly referred to as descriptive representatives. This literature has also endorsed various institutional reforms aimed at increasing the number of descriptive representatives, e.g., party list quotas, racial districting, and proportional representation. However, this literature does not articulate criteria that should guide the selection of descriptive representatives to serve in these institutional positions. Indeed, some thinkers claim that such criteria cannot, or at least should not, be articulated. I argue that some descriptive representatives are preferable to others and that criteria for selecting preferable descriptive representatives can, and should, be articulated. Moreover, I recommend one such criterion: Preferable descriptive representatives possess strong mutual relationships with dispossessed subgroups of historically disadvantaged groups.
12401. The Department of General Services, in consultation with the California Environmental Protection Agency, members of the public, industry, and public health and environmental organizations, shall provide state agencies with information and assistance regarding environmentally preferable purchasing including, but not limited to, the following:
12401.5. Within existing resources, the Department of General Services shall designate a single point of contact for state agencies, suppliers, and other interested parties to contact regarding environmentally preferable purchasing issues.
12403. Nothing contained in any policy regarding environmentally preferable purchasing may be construed as requiring the acquisition of goods or services that do not perform adequately for their intended use, exclude adequate competition, or are not available at a reasonable price in a reasonable period of time.
EP³ is administered by the City of San Diego's Environmental Services and Purchasing & Contracting departments. This site provides information and resources on how to incorporate EP³ into the City of San Diego's purchasing practices and successfully implement A.R. 35.80 related to environmentally preferable purchasing, including the benefits of EPPs, citywide contracts offering EPPs, EPP product information, documents, tools, and more.
This class is recommended for individuals who want to learn more about environmentally preferable purchasing and how to incorporate EPP practices into their business or organization. Past participants have included:
"worthy to be preferred, more desirable," 1640s (implied in preferableness), from or on model of French préférable, from préfér (see prefer). OED notes that the spelling preferrable is better English but has not prevailed. Related: Preferably; preferability.
There is strong evidence that the medication apixaban (Eliquis) is preferable to rivaroxaban (Xarelto) for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), with both reduced rates of severe bleeding complications as well as strokes, according to study published Dec. 21 in JAMA.
12400. For purposes of this chapter, "environmentally preferablepurchasing" means the procurement or acquisition of goods andservices that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and theenvironment when compared with competing goods or services thatserve the same purpose. This comparison shall take intoconsideration, to the extent feasible, raw materials acquisition,production, manufacturing, packaging, distribution, reuse, operation,maintenance, disposal, energy efficiency, product performance,durability, safety, the needs of the purchaser, and cost.12401. The Department of General Services, in consultation with theCalifornia Environmental Protection Agency, members of the public,industry, and public health and environmental organizations, shallprovide state agencies with information and assistance regardingenvironmentally preferable purchasing including, but not limited to,the following: (a) The promotion of environmentally preferable purchasing. (b) The development and implementation of a strategy to increaseenvironmentally preferable purchasing. This may include thedevelopment of statewide policies, guidelines, programs, andregulations. (c) The coordination with other state and federal agencies, taskforces, workgroups, regulatory efforts, research and data collectionefforts, and other programs and services relating to environmentallypreferable purchasing. (d) The development and implementation, to the extent fiscallyfeasible, of training programs designed to instill the importance andvalue of environmentally preferable purchasing. (e) The development, to the extent fiscally feasible, of anenvironmentally preferable purchasing best practices manual for statepurchasing employees.12401.5. Within existing resources, the Department of GeneralServices shall designate a single point of contact for stateagencies, suppliers, and other interested parties to contactregarding environmentally preferable purchasing issues.12402. Nothing contained in this chapter shall prohibit, limit, orsupersede recycled content requirements pursuant to any otherprovision of law.12403. Nothing contained in any policy regarding environmentallypreferable purchasing may be construed as requiring the acquisitionof goods or services that do not perform adequately for theirintended use, exclude adequate competition, or are not available at areasonable price in a reasonable period of time.12404. Manufacturers, vendors, or other nongovernmental entitiescontracting with the Department of General Services shall certify inwriting that any environmental attribute claims they make concerningtheir products and services are consistent with the Federal TradeCommission's Guidelines for the Use of Environmental Marketing Terms.Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. California may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the state site. Please check official sources.
The U.S. healthcare industry spends more than $200 billion annually on medical and non-medical products. Unfortunately, many of the products and materials that come into a hospital may be harmful to patients, staff, and visitors, because they may contain or release (during production, use or disposal) carcinogens or toxins. Environmentally preferable purchasing (EPP), in healthcare, means buying products and services that are safer for human health and the environment. EPP plans include procedures that expand the scope of environmental purchasing, as new environmentally healthy products are identified. Environmentally preferable purchasing should also help the healthcare facility reduce waste and operate more efficiently, while still placing the safety of patients, staff, and visitors first.
In the Print Shop, we use only recycled paper; some of the paper (white) is close to 100 percent recycled. We purchase only paints, adhesives and sealants that are low or no VOC (volatile organic compounds.) We purchase reusable surgical items and reprocessed medical devices (such as electrophysiology catheters) where clinically preferable. In 2021, participating in the SterilMed reprocessing program, we collected 21,987 devices and diverted 2,868 lbs. from landfills. We purchase flooring, wall coverings, paints, mats, finishes, furniture, and exterior materials that avoid chemicals of concern.
Withdrawal of therapy is often seen as less acceptable . Although it is clearly more difficult to discontinue than not to start, I shall argue that withdrawal should be permitted, that it is ethically equivalent to withholding, and that it may even be preferable to withholding in some cases.
End-of-life decision making is an important and widely accepted part of modern intensive care medical practice . Much time and discussion has been given to the differences between withdrawing and withholding therapy but, as I outline above, these are ethically and morally identical concepts; withdrawal of therapy should be permitted and may even be preferable to withholding therapy. In all cases the patient should be at the centre of our preoccupations. If our treatment does not benefit the patient (futile therapy) then we are duty bound to stop it without undue delay. Continuing mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal renal support in a patient who has no real chances of recovering a meaningful life is of no use and should be stopped, exactly as it should not be started if there is no chance that it will benefit the patient.
Coles concerned a proposed class action brought against car manufacturer Chrysler Canada Inc., now FCA Canada Inc., for allegedly negligently installing airbags in its vehicles that contained the risk of exploding when deployed in a motor vehicle collision. Coles was one of six national class actions commenced against 12 groups of car manufacturers and the designer and manufacturer of the airbags, Takata Corporation and TK Holdings (collectively Takata). Although Takata was named in all six class actions, it declared bankruptcy prior to any of the certification motions and was released from all the class actions. At issue before the Court was whether Coles could be certified as a class action. Perell J. held that the proposed class action could not be certified because it failed to meet the preferable procedure criterion even though it met the other four certification requirements.
To satisfy the preferability criterion, the proposed representative plaintiff must establish some basis in fact that the proposed class action: (a) is a fair, efficient, and manageable method of advancing the claim; (b) is preferable to any other reasonably available means of resolving the dispute; and (c) facilitates the three principal goals of class action (i.e., judicial economy, behaviour modification, and access to justice). 2b1af7f3a8