The inaugural issue of ACM Distributed Ledger Technologies: Research and Practice (DLT) is now available for download. DLT is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes high quality, interdisciplinary research on the research and development, real-world deployment, and/or evaluation of distributed ledger technologies (DLT) such as blockchain, cryptocurrency, and smart contracts. DLT offers a blend of original research work and innovative practice-driven advancements by internationally distinguished DLT experts and researchers from academia, and public and private sector organizations. For more information and to submit your work, visit the journal homepage.
The Unicode character repertoire is synchronized with ISO/IEC 10646, each being code-for-code identical with the other. The Unicode Standard, however, includes more than just the base code. Alongside the character encodings, the Consortium's official publication includes a wide variety of details about the scripts and how to display them: normalization rules, decomposition, collation, rendering, and bidirectional text display order for multilingual texts, and so on. The Standard also includes reference data files and visual charts to help developers and designers correctly implement the repertoire.
The first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO/IEC 8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. Many essentially identical characters were encoded multiple times at different code points to preserve distinctions used by legacy encodings and therefore, allow conversion from those encodings to Unicode (and back) without losing any information. For example, the "fullwidth forms" section of code points encompasses a full duplicate of the Latin alphabet because Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) fonts contain two versions of these letters, "fullwidth" matching the width of the CJK characters, and normal width. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode.
Unicode includes a mechanism for modifying characters that greatly extends the supported glyph repertoire. This covers the use of combining diacritical marks that may be added after the base character by the user. Multiple combining diacritics may be simultaneously applied to the same character. Unicode also contains precomposed versions of most letter/diacritic combinations in normal use. These make conversion to and from legacy encodings simpler, and allow applications to use Unicode as an internal text format without having to implement combining characters. For example, é can be represented in Unicode as U+0065 (LATIN SMALL LETTER E) followed by U+0301 (COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT), but it can also be represented as the precomposed character U+00E9 (LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH ACUTE). Thus, in many cases, users have multiple ways of encoding the same character. To deal with this, Unicode provides the mechanism of canonical equivalence.
In terms of the newline, Unicode introduced U+2028 LINE SEPARATOR and U+2029 PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR. This was an attempt to provide a Unicode solution to encoding paragraphs and lines semantically, potentially replacing all of the various platform solutions. In doing so, Unicode does provide a way around the historical platform dependent solutions. Nonetheless, few if any Unicode solutions have adopted these Unicode line and paragraph separators as the sole canonical line ending characters. However, a common approach to solving this issue is through newline normalization. This is achieved with the Cocoa text system in Mac OS X and also with W3C XML and HTML recommendations. In this approach every possible newline character is converted internally to a common newline (which one does not really matter since it is an internal operation just for rendering). In other words, the text system can correctly treat the character as a newline, regardless of the input's actual encoding.
La Norma UNI EN 13200-3 (a fine articolo l'abstract della norma) ha apportato delle modifiche rispetto alla precedente UNI 10121 sia per le barriere perimetrali esterne (ovvero quelle che separano l'area esterna dagli spazi di servizio per gli spettatori) sia per le barriere perimentrali interne (ossia quelle che separano l'area di osservazione per gli spettatori dall'area di attività). Le recinzioni di Nuova Defim per impianti sportivi soddisfano i requisiti previsti dalla norma UNI EN 13200-3 che prevede due aspetti tecnici principali che differiscono dalla precedente norma:
Findings showed that disasters are associated with everyday life of people. The severity of damages and their consequences depend on various factors such as socioeconomic vulnerability of people. Experiences and perceptions of the participants indicated that natural events are not the only obstacles impeding their return to normal life and different direct and indirect factors affect the speed and quality of this process. Three emerged subcategories about social vulnerabilities were as follows: 1) inefficiency of local non-governmentalsocial institutions, 2) lack of public awareness, and 3) social problems before the earthquake.
According to the results, inefficiency of non-governmental social institutions had left the government alone with the responsibility of restoration, and caused various problems in returning to normal life. Inefficiency of institutions such as councils and associations caused challenges for people in providing assistance and communicating with governmental institutions. From the viewpoint of participants, intermediary institutions could facilitate the rescue works, make them more goal-oriented, and prevent from lots of financial waste. It is noteworthy that competency of intermediary institutions is also an important factor. If people do not trust them or if they are incompetent, then their effectiveness is lost. One of the participants explained the situation as:
Lack of public awareness was another subcategory which caused problems for people at disaster time and even during the process of getting back to normal life. Most of the participants talked about lack of in advance knowledge and skills to respond to and recover from a disaster; they also believed that the current public education was not effective enough and made them unable to play any active role. A participant noted the issue as:
Findings showed that there were times of progress and yet times of frustration in the process of helping people to get back to normal life. In some areas, the management was very effective, yet in others it was very poor having no leadership or even being totally ignored. Participants believed that it is necessary to determine responsibility of the teams and consider appropriate measures before, during, and after disasters. Regarding this issue, findings revealed four subcategories of: 1) lack of comprehensive data and information, 2) negligence of vulnerable groups, 3) Concentration on reconstruction and overlooking of rehabilitation, and 4) improper distribution of resources.
Participants believed that getting back to normal life depends on the completion of reconstruction and therefore they were worried about the delay of this process. Most of the participants emphasized the importance and priority of physical reconstruction and believed that their return to normal life significantly depended on completion of physical reconstruction.
An important aspect in disaster recovery and return to normalcy is that survivors need to be active participants in the process. Self-efficacy is an important concept in psychological health, but when people are not included in their recovery; their sense of self-efficacy can be substantially undermined. Regarding the issue, following subcategories were extracted: 1) a top-down paternalistic approach, 2) undermining of trust, and 3) undermining of social networks and generation of self-centering.
The third subcategory of social capital neglect was the undermining of social networks and creation of self-centering. According to some participants, this was a significant obstacle in their ability to gain social effectiveness and a successful return to normal life:
Waste of people`s critical assets was another factor that impeded recovery. Some people were forced to sell their cattle at low prices after the earthquake because they did not have adequate barns and shelters necessary to take care of their livestock. These assets later were very important for getting back to normal life. Yet, most people were not able to make the loss up after some months because they could not afford the higher prices for cattle:
Loss of properties and assets caused people to think the earthquake has seized everything they had, so they lose their hope to get back to the normal life. Shortly after earthquake, conditions had changed in a way that people thought they cannot revive their lost assets. For example one participant said:
One of the main obstacles on the way back to normal life after earthquake was the lack of a comprehensive rehabilitation plan. Participants indicated that the recovery process started with an emotionally-laden management approach with a lot of energy, but gradually the momentum declined until it reached a level of no further activity thus leaving people bewildered, confused, and forgotten. Another important issue was the presence of unresolved social problems before the earthquake which led to intensification of social uncertainty and confusion in the aftermath of the disaster. This finding was consistent with those of other similar studies 27-30.
Lack of occupational infrastructures was another issue in return to normal life. Absence of a systematic program in this regard and lack of income led to financial distress among people. Financial distress was also occurred as a result of forced sale of assets, properties, and livestock at low prices immediately after the earthquake and the subsequent failure to recover them due to high pricing in the recovery period. Pyles, (2007) have similarly emphasized issues surrounding restoration of jobs and businesses after disasters 32. 2b1af7f3a8